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Natural Exponential Numbers and Physical Properties

 

Power of 10

Physical Property

Name or Prefix

Symbol

10-35

length in meters where spacetime becomes dominated by quantum effects, the
Planck length

 

 

10-24

 

yocto

y

10-21

 

zepto

z

10-19

charge of one
electron

 

 

10-18

 

atto

a

10-15

the radius in meters of one proton
(hydrogen nucleus)

femto

f

10-12

 

pico

p

10-10

radius in meters of a hydrogen atom

 

 

10-9

number of seconds it takes light to
travel one foot

nano

n

10-8

period in seconds of an FM radio wave

 

 

10-7

wavelength
in meters of germicidal Ultraviolet
radiation

 

 

10-6

 

micro-

m

10-3

 

milli

m

10-2

 

centi

c

10-1

fraction of stars
that can support life

deci

d

100

a) all is one

b) density of water in grams per milliliter

one

101

a) fingers on human hands

deka

D

102

a) human lifespan

b) number of stable elements in the
periodic table

hecto

h

103

speed of sound
in km/h

kilo-

k or K **

105

number of hairs on a human scalp

 

 

106

 

mega-

M

107

number of seconds in a year

 

 

108

a) number of people on earth (circa
500BC)

b)
number of meters light travels in one second

 

 

109

a) number of people on the earth (circa
1800)

b) number of heartbeats in a lifetime
for most mammals

 

giga

G

1010

number of people on the earth (circa
2050)

 

 

1012

a) number of cells in the human body

b) number of data bits on a
computer hard disk

tera

T

1013

national debt of USA in
dollars (circa 2008)

 

 

1014

number of neural
connections in human brain

 

 

1015

surface area of the earth in square
meters

peta

P

1016

speed of the fastest computer in FLOPS
(circa 2008)

 

 

1017

age of the universe in seconds

 

 

1018

volume of water in the earth’s oceans in
cubic meters

exa

E

1019

number of possible positions of Rubik’s
cube

 

 

1021

volume of the earth in cubic meters

zetta

Z

1024

a) number of grains of sand in the Sahara desert

b) number of atoms in one
mole (the Avogadro constant)

yotta

Y

1028

mass of the earth in grams

 

 

1033

mass of the solar system in grams

 

 

1050

a) number of atoms in the earth

b) number of possible chess
board positions

 

 

1066

number of atoms in our
Milky Way galaxy

 

 

 

1078

volume of the universe in cubic meters

 

 

1080

number of elementary particles in the
universe

 

 

10100

 

googol

 

10120

lower bound on the number
of possible chess games, also called the Shannon
number

 

 

10googol

 

googolplex

 

 

 

 

 

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